Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale in patients with tinnitus and hearing loss

Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2014 Aug;271(8):2177-84. doi: 10.1007/s00405-013-2715-6. Epub 2013 Sep 27.


The study was proposed to evaluate co-morbid depression, anxiety and stress associated with tinnitus patients. The study was done on 196 subjects: 100 patients suffering from subjective tinnitus associated with hearing loss (tinnitus group), 45 patients suffering from hearing loss only (hearing loss group) and 50 healthy subjects not suffering from tinnitus or hearing loss (control group); the age ranges from 20 to 60 years old. The studied sample was subjected to full ear, nose and throat examinations and audiological evaluation. Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) was developed by Levibond H and Levibond F to assess three self-report scales designed to measure the negative emotional status of depression, anxiety and stress. All patients and control group were evaluated by DASS. (1) Depression: males were affected more than females. All patients over 60 years were affected by depression. The duration of tinnitus seems correlating with the severity of depression. Only 2 patients (4.3 %) of the hearing loss group suffer from depression. (2) Anxiety: 90 % of males suffer from anxiety as compared to 83.3 % females. The age group 20-29 years old suffers more than other age groups. Only 4 patients (8.7 %) of hearing loss group suffer from anxiety. (3) Stress: females seem to be affected by the stress (76.7 %) more than males (67.5). Patients in age group 30-39 suffer the most from the disease. There is a direct correlation between duration of tinnitus and severity of stress. No one of the hearing loss group suffers from stress. In conclusion, depression, anxiety and stress should be taken into consideration in the treatment of patients suffering from tinnitus.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Anxiety / complications*
  • Audiometry
  • Depression / complications*
  • Female
  • Hearing Loss / complications*
  • Hearing Loss / psychology
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prospective Studies
  • Sex Factors
  • Stress, Psychological / complications*
  • Tinnitus / complications*
  • Tinnitus / psychology
  • Young Adult