The effects of fruit smoothies on enamel erosion

Eur Arch Paediatr Dent. 2014 Jun;15(3):175-81. doi: 10.1007/s40368-013-0080-1. Epub 2013 Sep 27.


Objectives: This prospective, randomised in vitro study was to investigate the pH and titratable acidity of fruit smoothie drinks and to assess the effect of these drinks on enamel erosion.

Method: Fifty enamel slabs were divided into five groups which were allocated to the sample solutions groups: Innocent(®) smoothie strawberries and bananas (SB), Innocent(®) smoothie mangoes and passion fruit (MP) and Diet Coke. Distilled deionised water (DD) was used as negative control and citric acid 0.3% as positive control. All the slabs were subjected to a 21-day pH cycling regime involving 2 min of immersions, five times a day with appropriate remineralization periods in between. Measurement of surface loss was assessed using profilometry. Independent sample t tests were used to compare mean.

Results: The titratable acidity for both test smoothies were 3.5-4 times more than that needed to neutralise Diet Coke and citric acid 0.3%. The pH of SB, MP smoothie and Diet Coke was found to be 3.73, 3.59 and 2.95, respectively. MP smoothie caused the greatest amount of surface loss followed by Diet Coke. Both smoothies were found to cause significant surface loss. MP smoothie resulted in significantly higher surface loss compared with MB smoothie and citric acid 3 %.

Conclusion: The smoothies tested were acidic and had high titratable acidity. They produced a significant erosion of enamel in vitro. The results of this study suggest that there should be increased awareness of the erosive effects of smoothies especially as their consumption seems to be on the increase.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Acids
  • Beverages* / adverse effects
  • Carbonated Beverages / adverse effects
  • Citric Acid / adverse effects
  • Dental Enamel / pathology*
  • Fragaria
  • Fruit*
  • Hardness
  • Humans
  • Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
  • In Vitro Techniques
  • Mangifera
  • Musa
  • Passiflora
  • Pilot Projects
  • Prospective Studies
  • Random Allocation
  • Saliva, Artificial / chemistry
  • Time Factors
  • Titrimetry
  • Tooth Erosion / etiology*


  • Acids
  • Saliva, Artificial
  • Citric Acid