Confocal microscopy is an imaging paradigm that allows optical sectioning of almost any material with increased axial and lateral spatial resolution and better image contrast. We have applied this technology to the study of the living eye of cats, albino rabbits, and humans. The technique allows in vivo, noninvasive, real time images of the eye at magnifications (630x) which allow resolution of anatomical detail at the cellular level. In this paper we report details of our current instrument techniques and some of our results. The past development, present state-of-the-art, and projected future advances and applications of this novel microscopy are discussed. Preliminary observations are reported for all layers of the cornea, the limbus, and wound-healing responses in single animals.