The bacterial adhesion on and the cytotoxicity of various dental cements used for implant-supported fixed restorations

Acta Odontol Scand. 2014 May;72(4):241-50. doi: 10.3109/00016357.2013.828320. Epub 2013 Sep 30.


Objective: Bacterial adhesion on and cytotoxicity of eight luting agents used for implant-supported restorations were investigated.

Materials and method: Surface roughness (Ra), surface free energy (SFE) values and three-dimensional images by atomic-force microscopy of circular specimens were determined. Bacterial suspensions of Streptococcus sanguinis and Streptococcus epidermidis were incubated at 37°C for 2 h. Adhering bacteria were examined with fluorescence dye CytoX-Violet, stained with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) and visualized by fluorescence-microscopy. Cytotoxicity-testing was done with WST-1-tests (water soluble tetrazolium). No significant differences, neither with regard to Ra nor regarding SFE were determined.

Results: Adherence of S. sanguinis was less on titanium, TempBondNE and TempBond. TempBond, TempBondNE, RelyX Unicem and Implantlink Semi Classic presented low amounts of S. epidermidis. WST-testing showed high cytotoxic potential of Harvard, Aqualox, TempBondNE and TempBond. No combination of low adherent bacteria with low cytotoxicity was found.

Conclusion: From a biological in-vitro perspective, none of the cements may be recommended for implant-supported restorations.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Bacterial Adhesion*
  • Biofilms
  • Dental Cements*
  • Dental Implants*
  • Dental Restoration, Permanent*
  • Microscopy, Fluorescence
  • Staphylococcus epidermidis / isolation & purification


  • Dental Cements
  • Dental Implants