Objective: Bacterial adhesion on and cytotoxicity of eight luting agents used for implant-supported restorations were investigated.
Materials and method: Surface roughness (Ra), surface free energy (SFE) values and three-dimensional images by atomic-force microscopy of circular specimens were determined. Bacterial suspensions of Streptococcus sanguinis and Streptococcus epidermidis were incubated at 37°C for 2 h. Adhering bacteria were examined with fluorescence dye CytoX-Violet, stained with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) and visualized by fluorescence-microscopy. Cytotoxicity-testing was done with WST-1-tests (water soluble tetrazolium). No significant differences, neither with regard to Ra nor regarding SFE were determined.
Results: Adherence of S. sanguinis was less on titanium, TempBondNE and TempBond. TempBond, TempBondNE, RelyX Unicem and Implantlink Semi Classic presented low amounts of S. epidermidis. WST-testing showed high cytotoxic potential of Harvard, Aqualox, TempBondNE and TempBond. No combination of low adherent bacteria with low cytotoxicity was found.
Conclusion: From a biological in-vitro perspective, none of the cements may be recommended for implant-supported restorations.