The intoeing child: etiology, prognosis, and current treatment options

Clin Podiatr Med Surg. 2013 Oct;30(4):531-65. doi: 10.1016/j.cpm.2013.07.002. Epub 2013 Jul 31.


Intoeing, a common entrance complaint in infants, toddlers, and young children, is best defined as internal rotation of the long axis of the foot to the line of progression. Intoeing may be caused by primary deformities within the foot, issues with tibial torsion, and femoral antetorsion (anteversion). Problems within the foot include hallux varus, metatarsus adductus, talipes equinovarus, and pes cavus, each of which has specific treatments available. Treatment must be individualized, and the risks and complications weighed against the predictable morbidity of intoeing.

Keywords: Adducted gait; Anteversion; Hallux varus; Internal tibial torsion; Intoeing; Metatarsus adductus; Pes cavus; Talipes equinovarus.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Foot Deformities / diagnosis*
  • Foot Deformities / etiology*
  • Foot Deformities / therapy
  • Gait
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Toes*