Risk factors for prolonged length of stay after the stage 2 procedure in the single-ventricle reconstruction trial

J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2014 Jun;147(6):1791-8, 1798.e1-4. doi: 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2013.07.063. Epub 2013 Sep 24.


Background: The single-ventricle reconstruction trial randomized patients with single right ventricle lesions to a modified Blalock-Taussig or right ventricle-to-pulmonary artery shunt at the Norwood. This analysis describes outcomes at the stage 2 procedure and factors associated with a longer hospital length of stay (LOS).

Methods: We examined the association of shunt type with stage 2 hospital outcomes. Cox regression and bootstrapping were used to evaluate risk factors for longer LOS. We also examined characteristics associated with in-hospital death.

Results: There were 393 subjects in the analytic cohort. Median stage 2 procedure hospital LOS (8 days; interquartile range [IQR], 6-14 days), hospital mortality (4.3%), transplantation (0.8%), median ventilator time (2 days; IQR, 1-3 days), median intensive care unit LOS (4 days; IQR, 3-7 days), number of additional cardiac procedures or complications, and serious adverse events did not differ by shunt type. Longer LOS was associated (R(2) = 0.26) with center, longer post-Norwood LOS (hazard ratio [HR], 1.93 per log day; P < .001), nonelective timing of the stage 2 procedure (HR, 1.78; P < .001), and pulmonary artery (PA) stenosis (HR, 1.56; P < .001). By univariate analysis, nonelective stage 2 (65% vs 32%; P = .009), moderate or greater atrioventricular valve (AVV) regurgitation (75% vs 24%; P < .001), and AVV repair (53% vs 9%; P < .001) were among the risk factors associated with in-hospital death.

Conclusions: Norwood LOS, PA stenoses, and nonelective stage 2 procedure, but not shunt type, are independently associated with longer LOS. Nonelective stage 2 procedure, moderate or greater AVV regurgitation, and need for AVV repair are among the risk factors for death.

Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00115934.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Multicenter Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Blalock-Taussig Procedure / adverse effects*
  • Blalock-Taussig Procedure / mortality
  • Heart Defects, Congenital / diagnosis
  • Heart Defects, Congenital / mortality
  • Heart Defects, Congenital / physiopathology
  • Heart Defects, Congenital / surgery*
  • Heart Ventricles / abnormalities
  • Heart Ventricles / physiopathology
  • Heart Ventricles / surgery*
  • Hospital Mortality
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Intensive Care Units
  • Length of Stay*
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • North America
  • Norwood Procedures / adverse effects*
  • Norwood Procedures / mortality
  • Postoperative Complications / mortality
  • Postoperative Complications / therapy
  • Proportional Hazards Models
  • Risk Factors
  • Time Factors
  • Treatment Outcome

Associated data

  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT00115934