The gut microbiota affects host metabolism through a number of physiological processes. Emerging evidence suggests that gut microbes interact with the host through several pathways involving enteroendocrine cells (e.g. L cells). The activation of specific G protein coupled receptors expressed on L cells (e.g. GPR41, GPR43, GPR119 and TGR5) triggers the secretion of glucagon-like peptides (GLP-1 and GLP-2) and PYY. These gut peptides are known to control energy homeostasis, glucose metabolism, gut barrier function and metabolic inflammation. Here, we explore how crosstalk between the ligands produced by the gut microbiota (short chain fatty acids, or SCFAs), or produced by the host but influenced by gut microbes (endocannabinoids and bile acids), impact host physiology.
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