Molecules acting in the central nervous system play a critical role in the control of both energy and glucose homeostasis. The hypothalamus consists of a highly diverse collection of interconnected neurons and supporting glial cells that allow this region of the brain to sense and respond to a diverse range of hormonal and metabolic signals. We review recent advances in our understanding of the anatomical architecture and molecular mechanisms within the hypothalamus and how these facilitate the orchestration of systemic metabolic processes.
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