Objectives: This study sought to determine if in addition to standard preventive measures on-admission, high-dose rosuvastatin exerts a protective effect against contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI).
Background: Patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) are at high risk for CI-AKI, and the role of statin pre-treatment in preventing renal damage remains uncertain.
Methods: Consecutive statin-naïve non-ST elevation ACS patients scheduled to undergo early invasive strategy were randomly assigned to receive rosuvastatin (40 mg on admission, followed by 20 mg/day; statin group n = 252) or no statin treatment (control group n = 252). CI-AKI was defined as an increase in creatinine concentration of ≥0.5 mg/dl or ≥25% above baseline within 72 h after contrast administration.
Results: The incidence of CI-AKI was significantly lower in the statin group than in controls (6.7% vs. 15.1%; adjusted odds ratio: 0.38; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.20 to 0.71; p = 0.003). The benefits against CI-AKI were consistent, even applying different CI-AKI definition criteria and in all the pre-specified risk categories. The 30-day incidence of adverse cardiovascular and renal events (death, dialysis, myocardial infarction, stroke, or persistent renal damage) was significantly lower in the statin group (3.6% vs. 7.9%, respectively; p = 0.036). Moreover, statin treatment given on admission was associated with a lower rate of death or nonfatal myocardial infarction at 6 month follow-up (3.6% vs. 7.2%, respectively; p = 0.07).
Conclusions: High-dose rosuvastatin given on admission to statin-naïve patients with ACS who are scheduled for an early invasive procedure can prevent CI-AKI and improve short-term clinical outcome. (Statin Contrast Induced Nephropathy Prevention [PRATO-ACS]; NCT01185938).
Keywords: 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A; ACS; CI-AKI; HMG-CoA; LVEF; N-acetylcysteine; NAC; NSTE; PCI; acute coronary syndrome(s); contrast-induced acute kidney injury; contrast-induced nephropathy; eCrCl; eGFR; estimated creatinine clearance; estimated glomerular filtration rate; left ventricular ejection fraction; percutaneous coronary intervention; statins; without ST-segment elevation.
Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.