Enzymatic, antimicrobial and toxicity studies of the aqueous extract of Ananas comosus (pineapple) crown leaf

J Ethnopharmacol. 2013 Nov 25;150(2):451-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2013.08.024. Epub 2013 Sep 26.


Ethnopharmacological relevance: Various parts of the plant pineapple (Ananas comosus) are used in traditional medicine worldwide for treatment of a number of diseases and disorders. In folk medicine, pineapple leaf extract was used as an antimicrobial, vermicide, purgative, emmenagoogue, abortifacient, anti-oedema and anti-inflammatory agent. Compared to the fruit and stem extracts of pineapple, information about its leaf extract is limited. The potential of pineapple crown leaf extract as an ethno-medicine has been evaluated in terms of its enzymatic activities related to wound healing, antimicrobial property and toxicity.

Materials and methods: Major protein components of the extract were revealed by 2-D gel electrophoresis followed by MS/MS analysis. Zymography, DQ-gelatin assay were performed to demonstrate proteolytic, fibrinolytic, gelatinase and collagenase activities. DNase and RNase activities were revealed from agarose gel electrophoresis. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated spectrophotometrically from growth inhibition. Sprague-Dawley rat model was used to measure acute and sub-acute toxicity of the extract by analyzing blood markers.

Result: The extract contains several proteins that were clustered under native condition. Proteomic studies indicated presence of fruit bromelain as major protein constituent of the extract. It showed nonspecific protease activity, gelatinolytic, collagenase, fibrinolytic, acid and alkaline phosphatase, peroxidase, DNase and RNase activities along with considerable anti-microbial property. The leaf extract did not induce any toxicity in rats after oral administration of acute and sub-acute doses.

Conclusion: Pineapple leaf extract is nontoxic, contains enzymes related to damage tissue repairing, wound healing and possibly prevents secondary infections from microbial organisms.

Keywords: 0.9% phosphate buffer saline; 3[(3-Cholamidopropyl) dimethylammonio]-propanesulfonic acid; ALP; Ananas comosus (Pineapple) crown leaf; Antimicrobial activity; BSA; BUN; Biological urea nitrogen; CHAPS; CHCA; EDTA; Enzymes; FZ; H(2)O(2); HRP; MBC; MIC; MLD; N-α-p-tosyl-l-arginine-methyl ester hydrochloride; ODA; PBS; PHMB; PMSF; PNPP; Protein profile; SGOT; SGPT; TAME; TCA; TFA; Toxicity; alkaline phosphatase; also called ALT or alanine aminotransferase; also called AST or aspartate aminotransferase; bovine serum albumin; ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid; fibrin zymography; horse radish peroxidase; hydrogen peroxide; minimum bacteriocidal concentration; minimum inhibitory concentration; minimum lethal dose; o-dianisidine; p-hydroxymercuribenzoate; para-nitro phenyl phosphate; phenylmethylsulphonyl fluoride; trichloroacetic acid; trifluoroacetic acid; α-cyano-4- hydroxycinnamic acid.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Amylases / metabolism
  • Ananas* / metabolism
  • Animals
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacology*
  • Bacteria / drug effects
  • Bacteria / growth & development
  • Caseins / metabolism
  • Deoxyribonucleases / metabolism
  • Esterases / metabolism
  • Female
  • Peptide Hydrolases / metabolism
  • Peroxidases / metabolism
  • Phosphoric Monoester Hydrolases / metabolism
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology*
  • Plant Leaves
  • Plant Proteins / metabolism*
  • Proteomics
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
  • Ribonucleases / metabolism
  • Wound Healing


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Caseins
  • Plant Extracts
  • Plant Proteins
  • azocasein
  • Peroxidases
  • Deoxyribonucleases
  • Esterases
  • Ribonucleases
  • Phosphoric Monoester Hydrolases
  • Amylases
  • Peptide Hydrolases