Cas9 as a versatile tool for engineering biology

Nat Methods. 2013 Oct;10(10):957-63. doi: 10.1038/nmeth.2649.


RNA-guided Cas9 nucleases derived from clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas systems have dramatically transformed our ability to edit the genomes of diverse organisms. We believe tools and techniques based on Cas9, a single unifying factor capable of colocalizing RNA, DNA and protein, will grant unprecedented control over cellular organization, regulation and behavior. Here we describe the Cas9 targeting methodology, detail current and prospective engineering advances and suggest potential applications ranging from basic science to the clinic.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Bioengineering / methods*
  • Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats
  • DNA Cleavage
  • Genetic Engineering / methods*
  • Genome*
  • Genome, Bacterial
  • RNA Editing*
  • RNA, Guide, Kinetoplastida / genetics*
  • Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid
  • Ribonucleases / genetics
  • Streptococcus pyogenes / genetics


  • RNA, Guide
  • Ribonucleases