The accurate and thorough genome-wide detection of adenosine-to-inosine editing, a biologically indispensable process, has proven challenging. Here, we present a discovery pipeline in adult Drosophila, with 3,581 high-confidence editing sites identified with an estimated accuracy of 87%. The target genes and specific sites highlight global biological properties and functions of RNA editing, including hitherto-unknown editing in well-characterized classes of noncoding RNAs and 645 sites that cause amino acid substitutions, usually at conserved positions. The spectrum of functions that these gene targets encompass suggests that editing participates in a diverse set of cellular processes. Editing sites in Drosophila exhibit sequence-motif preferences and tend to be concentrated within a small subset of total RNAs. Finally, editing regulates expression levels of target mRNAs and strongly correlates with alternative splicing.