Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
Review
. 2013 Sep 26;5(10):3839-53.
doi: 10.3390/nu5103839.

Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity: The New Frontier of Gluten Related Disorders

Affiliations
Free PMC article
Review

Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity: The New Frontier of Gluten Related Disorders

Carlo Catassi et al. Nutrients. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Non Celiac Gluten sensitivity (NCGS) was originally described in the 1980s and recently a "re-discovered" disorder characterized by intestinal and extra-intestinal symptoms related to the ingestion of gluten-containing food, in subjects that are not affected with either celiac disease (CD) or wheat allergy (WA). Although NCGS frequency is still unclear, epidemiological data have been generated that can help establishing the magnitude of the problem. Clinical studies further defined the identity of NCGS and its implications in human disease. An overlap between the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and NCGS has been detected, requiring even more stringent diagnostic criteria. Several studies suggested a relationship between NCGS and neuropsychiatric disorders, particularly autism and schizophrenia. The first case reports of NCGS in children have been described. Lack of biomarkers is still a major limitation of clinical studies, making it difficult to differentiate NCGS from other gluten related disorders. Recent studies raised the possibility that, beside gluten, wheat amylase-trypsin inhibitors and low-fermentable, poorly-absorbed, short-chain carbohydrates can contribute to symptoms (at least those related to IBS) experienced by NCGS patients. In this paper we report the major advances and current trends on NCGS.

Similar articles

See all similar articles

Cited by 98 articles

See all "Cited by" articles

References

    1. Cooper B.T., Holmes G.K., Ferguson R., Thompson R.A., Allan R.N., Cooke W.T. Gluten-sensitive diarrhea without evidence of celiac disease. Gastroenterology. 1981;81:192–194. - PubMed
    1. Sapone A., Lammers K.M., Mazzarella G., Mikhailenko I., Cartenì M., Casolaro V., Fasano A. Differential mucosal IL-17 expression in two gliadin-induced disorders: Gluten sensitivity and the autoimmune enteropathy celiac disease. Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol. 2010;152:75–80. - PMC - PubMed
    1. Sanders D.S., Aziz I. Non celiac wheat sensitivity: Separating the wheat from the chaff. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 2012;107:1908–1912. doi: 10.1038/ajg.2012.344. - DOI - PubMed
    1. Sapone A., Bai J.C., Ciacci C., Dolinsek J., Green P.H., Hadjivassiliou M., Kaukinen K., Rostami K., Sanders D.S., Schumann M., et al. Spectrum of gluten-related disorders: Consensus on new nomenclature and classification. BMC Med. 2012;10:13. doi: 10.1186/1741-7015-10-13. - DOI - PMC - PubMed
    1. Ludvigsson J.F., Leffler D.A., Bai J.C., Biagi F., Fasano A., Green P.H., Hadjivassiliou M., Kaukinen K., Kelly C.P., Leonard J.N., et al. The Oslo definitions for coeliac disease and related terms. Gut. 2013;62:43–52. doi: 10.1136/gutjnl-2011-301346. - DOI - PMC - PubMed

MeSH terms

Feedback