Smoking motivation in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder using the Wisconsin inventory of smoking dependence motives

Nicotine Tob Res. 2014 Jan;16(1):120-5. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntt144. Epub 2013 Sep 28.


Introduction: Smokers with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) differ from smokers without ADHD across a range of smoking outcomes (e.g., higher prevalence rates of smoking, faster progression to regular smoking, and greater difficulty quitting). Moreover, ADHD as a disorder has been characterized by deficits in fundamental motivational processes. To date, few studies have examined how motivation for smoking might differ between nicotine-dependent individuals with and without ADHD. The goal of this study was to assess whether specific smoking motivation factors differentiate smokers with and without ADHD as measured by an empirically derived self-report measure of smoking motivations.

Methods: Smokers with (n = 61) and without (n = 89) ADHD participated in a range of laboratory and clinical studies that included the Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives (WISDM).

Results: A series of one-way analysis of covariances statistically controlling for age and race indicated that smokers with ADHD scored higher on the following WISDM subscales than their non-ADHD peers: automaticity, loss of control, cognitive enhancement, cue exposure, and negative reinforcement. Smokers in the non-ADHD group yielded higher scores on the social- environmental goads WISDM subscale. No group by gender interactions emerged.

Conclusions: Cigarette smokers with ADHD report different motives for smoking than smokers without ADHD. Clarifying the role of these motivational factors has implications for smoking prevention and treatment.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity / psychology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Motivation
  • Smoking / psychology*
  • Wisconsin
  • Young Adult