Context: Although AP2S1 has recently been shown to be a causative gene for familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia type 3 (FHH3), knowledge about FHH3 remains poor.
Objective: Our objective was to report AP2S1 mutation and effects of low calcium formula in a patient with hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria.
Patient: This Japanese female infant was found to have hypercalcemia by a routine laboratory test for poor weight gain on breast feeding. At 49 days of age, serum calcium (adjusted by Payne's formula) was 13.1 mg/dL, intact PTH 27 pg/mL, and urinary calcium-to-creatinine ratio 1.29 mg/mg. There was no evidence for hyperparathyroidism, PTHrP-producing neoplasm, and vitamin D excess. These data, except for hypercalciuria, appeared to be consistent with defective calcium-sensing receptor-mediated signaling. With use of low calcium formula containing 2.6 mg/dL of calcium, she showed catch-up growth, and serum calcium was decreased, as was urinary calcium-to-creatinine ratio. Furthermore, feeding with a mixture of low calcium formula and standard formula with a 2:1 ratio maintained serum calcium ∼12 mg/dL without markedly increasing serum PTH.
Results: Although no pathologic mutation was detected in CASR or GNA11, a presumably de novo heterozygous mutation (p.Arg15Leu), a previously reported causative mutation for FHH3, was identified in AP2S1 of this patient.
Conclusions: The results imply that lack of hypocalciuria does not necessarily argue against the presence of AP2S1 mutations. The early infantile age of this patient would have played a certain role in the occurrence of hypercalciuria, and low calcium formula is worth attempting in infants with FHH.