Relationship of race/ethnicity with door-to-balloon time and mortality in patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention for ST-elevation myocardial infarction: findings from Get With the Guidelines-Coronary Artery Disease

Clin Cardiol. 2013 Dec;36(12):749-56. doi: 10.1002/clc.22213. Epub 2013 Sep 24.


Background: Prior studies have described racial/ethnic disparities in door-to-balloon (DTB) time for patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We sought to compare DTB time between different racial/ethnic groups undergoing primary PCI for ST-elevation myocardial infarction in Get With the Guidelines (GWTG).

Hypothesis: There may be differences in D2B time associated with race/ethnicity.

Methods: We identified 7445 white (n = 6365), African American (n = 568), and Hispanic (n = 512) patients undergoing primary PCI.

Results: There were no differences in the median DTB time between white (74 minutes; intraquartile range [IQR], 54-99), African American (77 minutes; IQR, 57-100), and Hispanic (75 minutes; IQR, 56-100) (P = 0.13) patients. There were no crude differences in DTB time ≤90 minutes; however, after adjusting for confounders, African American race was associated with lower odds of DTB time ≤90 minutes (odds ratio [OR]: 0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.70-0.99; P = 0.04). This association was seen in African American males (OR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.55-0.80) but not African American females (OR: 1.27; 95% CI: 0.96-1.68). Overall, Hispanic ethnicity was not associated with a difference in DTB time ≤90 minutes (OR: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.77-1.25; P = 0.88); although Hispanic males did have a slightly longer median DTB time compared with whites. During the study, the proportion of patients with DTB times ≤90 minutes increased for all groups, and mortality was similar between groups (white 3.8%, African American 3.0%, Hispanic 4.1%, P = 0.62).

Conclusions: In GWTG-Coronary Artery Disease, small differences in DTB times persist among different races/ethnicities. However, the proportion achieving DTB times ≤90 minutes has increased substantially for all patients over time, and there was no association between race/ethnicity and in-hospital mortality.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Observational Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • African Americans*
  • Aged
  • Chi-Square Distribution
  • Female
  • Guideline Adherence
  • Health Services Accessibility
  • Healthcare Disparities / ethnology*
  • Hispanic or Latino*
  • Hospital Mortality / ethnology
  • Humans
  • Linear Models
  • Logistic Models
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Myocardial Infarction / diagnosis
  • Myocardial Infarction / ethnology*
  • Myocardial Infarction / mortality
  • Myocardial Infarction / therapy*
  • Odds Ratio
  • Percutaneous Coronary Intervention* / adverse effects
  • Percutaneous Coronary Intervention* / mortality
  • Percutaneous Coronary Intervention* / standards
  • Practice Guidelines as Topic
  • Prospective Studies
  • Registries
  • Risk Factors
  • Time Factors
  • Time-to-Treatment* / standards
  • Treatment Outcome
  • United States / epidemiology
  • Whites*