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Review
. 2013 Sep 27;8(9):e73965.
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0073965. eCollection 2013.

Dairy Products Consumption and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: Systematic Review and Dose-Response Meta-Analysis

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Free PMC article
Review

Dairy Products Consumption and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: Systematic Review and Dose-Response Meta-Analysis

Dengfeng Gao et al. PLoS One. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Background: The consumption of dairy products may influence the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but inconsistent findings have been reported. Moreover, large variation in the types of dairy intake has not yet been fully explored.

Methods and results: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to clarify the dose-response association of dairy products intake and T2DM risk. We searched PubMed, EMBASE and Scopus for studies of dairy products intake and T2DM risk published up to the end of October 2012. Random-effects models were used to estimate summary relative risk (RR) statistics. Dose-response relations were evaluated using data from different dairy products in each study. We included 14 articles of cohort studies that reported RR estimates and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) of T2DM with dairy products intake. We found an inverse linear association of consumption of total dairy products (13 studies), low-fat dairy products (8 studies), cheese (7 studies) and yogurt (7 studies) and risk of T2DM. The pooled RRs were 0.94 (95% CI 0.91-0.97) and 0.88 (0.84-0.93) for 200 g/day total and low-fat dairy consumption, respectively. The pooled RRs were 0.80 (0.69-0.93) and 0.91 (0.82-1.00) for 30 g/d cheese and 50 g/d yogurt consumption, respectively. We also found a nonlinear association of total and low-fat dairy intake and T2DM risk, and the inverse association appeared to be strongest within 200 g/d intake.

Conclusion: A modest increase in daily intake of dairy products such as low fat dairy, cheese and yogurt may contribute to the prevention of T2DM, which needs confirmation in randomized controlled trials.

Conflict of interest statement

Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1. Flow chart for the selection of studies for meta-analysis of the association of dairy products intake and type 2 diabetes (T2DM).
Figure 2
Figure 2. Methodological quality across included studies.
Figure 3
Figure 3. Forest plot of relative risk (RR) for total dairy products intake and T2DM.
A, highest versus lowest intake. B, dose–response analysis (200 g/d). Weights are from random effects analysis.
Figure 4
Figure 4. Dairy products and incidence of T2DM, nonlinear dose–response analysis.
A, total dairy. B, low-fat dairy.
Figure 5
Figure 5. Forest plot of RR for low-fat dairy products intake and T2DM.
A, highest versus lowest intake. B, dose–response analysis (200 g/d). Weights are from random-effects analysis.
Figure 6
Figure 6. Forest plot of RR for full-fat dairy products intake and T2DM.
A, highest versus lowest intake. B, dose–response analysis (200 g/d). Weights are from random-effects analysis.
Figure 7
Figure 7. Forest plot of RR for highest versus lowest milk intake and T2DM.
A, total milk. B, low fat milk. C, full fat milk. Weights are from random-effects analysis.

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Grant support

This study was supported by a grant from National Natural Science Foundation of China (no. 30900617 to D. Gao). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
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