Comparative analysis of ESBL-positive Escherichia coli isolates from animals and humans from the UK, The Netherlands and Germany

PLoS One. 2013 Sep 26;8(9):e75392. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0075392. eCollection 2013.


The putative virulence and antimicrobial resistance gene contents of extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-positive E. coli (n=629) isolated between 2005 and 2009 from humans, animals and animal food products in Germany, The Netherlands and the UK were compared using a microarray approach to test the suitability of this approach with regard to determining their similarities. A selection of isolates (n=313) were also analysed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Isolates harbouring bla(CTX-M-group-1) dominated (66%, n=418) and originated from both animals and cases of human infections in all three countries; 23% (n=144) of all isolates contained both bla(CTX-M-group-1) and bla(OXA-1-like) genes, predominantly from humans (n=127) and UK cattle (n=15). The antimicrobial resistance and virulence gene profiles of this collection of isolates were highly diverse. A substantial number of human isolates (32%, n=87) did not share more than 40% similarity (based on the Jaccard coefficient) with animal isolates. A further 43% of human isolates from the three countries (n=117) were at least 40% similar to each other and to five isolates from UK cattle and one each from Dutch chicken meat and a German dog; the members of this group usually harboured genes such as mph(A), mrx, aac(6')-Ib, catB3, bla(OXA-1-like) and bla(CTX-M-group-1). forty-four per cent of the MLST-typed isolates in this group belonged to ST131 (n=18) and 22% to ST405 (n=9), all from humans. Among animal isolates subjected to MLST (n=258), only 1.2% (n=3) were more than 70% similar to human isolates in gene profiles and shared the same MLST clonal complex with the corresponding human isolates. The results suggest that minimising human-to-human transmission is essential to control the spread of ESBL-positive E. coli in humans.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animal Feed / microbiology
  • Animals
  • Cattle / microbiology*
  • Chickens / microbiology*
  • Dogs / microbiology*
  • Drug Resistance / genetics*
  • Escherichia coli / isolation & purification*
  • Escherichia coli / metabolism
  • Escherichia coli / pathogenicity*
  • Germany
  • Humans
  • Microarray Analysis
  • Multilocus Sequence Typing
  • Netherlands
  • Species Specificity
  • United Kingdom
  • Virulence
  • beta-Lactamases / metabolism*


  • beta-Lactamases

Grant support

This project is supported by United Kingdom Food Standards Agency (, project B14016) as a part of the EU-SAFEFOODERA project 08176, entitled: The role of commensal microflora of animals in the transmission of extended spectrum ß-lactamases. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.