The feline c-fms proto-oncogene product is a 170 kd glycoprotein with associated tyrosine kinase activity. This glycoprotein was expressed on mature cat macrophages from peritoneal inflammatory exudates and spleen. Similarly, the receptor for the murine colony-stimulating factor, CSF-1, is restricted to cells of the mononuclear phagocytic lineage and is a 165 kd glycoprotein with an associated tyrosine kinase. Rabbit antisera to a recombinant v-fms-coded polypeptide precipitated the feline c-fms product and specifically cross-reacted with a 165 kd glycoprotein from mouse macrophages. This putative product of the murine c-fms gene exhibited an associated tyrosine kinase activity in immune complexes, specifically bound murine CSF-1, and, in the presence of the growth factor, was phosphorylated on tyrosine in membrane preparations. The murine c-fms proto-oncogene product and the CSF-1 receptor are therefore related, and possibly identical, molecules.