Objective: To determine whether integrating family planning services into HIV care is associated with increased use of more effective contraceptive methods (sterilization, intrauterine device, implant, injectable or oral contraceptives).
Design: Cluster-randomized trial.
Setting: Eighteen public HIV clinics in Nyanza Province, Kenya.
Participants: Women aged 18-45 years receiving care at participating HIV clinics; 5682 clinical encounters from baseline period (December 2009-February 2010) and 12,531 encounters from end-line period (July 2011-September 2011, 1 year after site training).
Intervention: Twelve sites were randomized to integrate family planning services into the HIV clinic, whereas six clinics were controls where clients desiring contraception were referred to family planning clinics at the same facility.
Main outcome measures: Increase in use of more effective contraceptive methods between baseline and end-line periods. Pregnancy rates during the follow-up year (October 2010-September 2011) were also compared.
Results: Women seen at integrated sites were significantly more likely to use more effective contraceptive methods at the end of the study [increased from 16.7 to 36.6% at integrated sites, compared to increase from 21.1 to 29.8% at controls; odds ratio (OR) 1.81, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.24-2.63]. Condom use decreased non-significantly at intervention sites compared to controls (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.35-1.19). No difference was observed in incident pregnancy in the first year after integration comparing intervention to control sites (incidence rate ratio 0.90; 95% CI 0.68-1.20).
Conclusions: Integration of family planning services into HIV care clinics increased use of more effective contraceptive methods with a non-significant reduction in condom use. Although no significant reduction in pregnancy incidence was observed during the study, 1 year may be too short a period of observation for this outcome.