Anti-glutamic Acid decarboxylase antibody associated limbic encephalitis in a child: expanding the spectrum of pediatric inflammatory brain diseases

J Child Neurol. 2014 May;29(5):677-83. doi: 10.1177/0883073813500527. Epub 2013 Oct 3.

Abstract

Anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase directed antibodies are a rare cause of autoimmune limbic encephalitis that is relatively resistant to immunotherapy. Here we report a 15-year-old boy with nonparaneoplastic, anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase limbic encephalitis presenting with subacute headache, memory disturbance, psychiatric symptoms, and seizures. At onset, his memory disturbance manifested as transient global amnesia-like episodes. Clinical remission was achieved with rituximab, intravenous immunoglobulin, and corticosteroids.

Keywords: anti-GAD; autoimmune; glutamic acid decarboxylase; limbic encephalitis; rituximab; transient global amnesia.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Antibodies / blood*
  • Autoimmune Diseases / blood*
  • Autoimmune Diseases / immunology
  • Autoimmune Diseases / physiopathology
  • Electroencephalography
  • Glutamate Decarboxylase / immunology*
  • Humans
  • Limbic Encephalitis / blood*
  • Limbic Encephalitis / immunology
  • Limbic Encephalitis / physiopathology
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Male

Substances

  • Antibodies
  • Glutamate Decarboxylase

Supplementary concepts

  • Autoimmune limbic encephalitis