Vancomycin-resistant enterococci

Crit Care Clin. 2013 Oct;29(4):841-52. doi: 10.1016/j.ccc.2013.06.006.


Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) consist mainly of Enterococcus faecalis and E faecium, the latter mostly hospital-acquired. In addition, E gallinarum and E casseliflavus are intrinsically vancomycin-resistant and are community-acquired. VRE have become common in many hospitals throughout the world and, once established, are very difficult to eradicate. VRE are difficult to treat; therefore, infection control measures in hospitals are of prime importance in preventing the establishment of these pathogens. Most severe VRE infections will need combination therapy because many of the effective antimicrobial agents, when used alone, have only a bacteriostatic effect.

Keywords: Critical care; Enterococcus; Gram-positive cocci; Infection; Resistant pathogen; Vancomycin.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Aminoglycosides / pharmacology
  • Aminoglycosides / therapeutic use*
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacology
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Cross Infection / drug therapy
  • Drug Therapy, Combination
  • Enterococcus / drug effects*
  • Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections / drug therapy*
  • Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections / transmission
  • Humans
  • Infection Control / methods
  • Microbial Sensitivity Tests
  • Vancomycin / pharmacology
  • Vancomycin / therapeutic use
  • Vancomycin Resistance*
  • beta-Lactams / pharmacology
  • beta-Lactams / therapeutic use*


  • Aminoglycosides
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • beta-Lactams
  • Vancomycin