Visualization of inflammation and demyelination in 2D2 transgenic mice with rodent MRI

J Neuroimmunol. 2013 Nov 15;264(1-2):35-40. doi: 10.1016/j.jneuroim.2013.09.008. Epub 2013 Sep 18.


Research tools are urgently needed to elucidate the specificities of NMO and MS due to their clinical similarity at the early stage of the diseases. Herein, using high-field-strength MRI we characterized the optic nerve and spinal cord lesions in 2D2(tg) mice (MOG 35-55 specific TCR). Specifically, early Blood-brain Barrier breakdown was observed in 86% of the 2D2(tg) mice, while the majority of mice showed little to no brain lesions. Further, immunohistology showed inflammatory infiltrates and demyelination in the brain and spinal cord that mirrored sites of MRI lesions, along with a decrease in AQP4 protein at lesion sites. Collectively, 2D2(tg) mice develop optic and spinal cord lesions that can be visualized by high-field rodent MRI and verified by pathological assessment. The similarity of these lesions with those seen in NMO patients suggests that the 2D2(tg) mouse might serve as a model for NMO research.

Keywords: MRI; Multiple sclerosis; Neuromyelitis Optica; TCR transgenic mice.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Analysis of Variance
  • Animals
  • Aquaporin 4 / metabolism
  • Blood-Brain Barrier / pathology
  • Demyelinating Diseases / genetics*
  • Demyelinating Diseases / pathology*
  • Disease Progression
  • Female
  • Gadolinium DTPA
  • Gene Expression Regulation / genetics
  • Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / metabolism
  • Inflammation / genetics*
  • Inflammation / pathology*
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Mice
  • Mice, Transgenic
  • Optic Nerve / pathology
  • Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta / genetics
  • Spinal Cord / pathology
  • Time Factors


  • Aquaporin 4
  • Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein
  • Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta
  • Gadolinium DTPA