In order to explore the pathogenetic factors of aging macular degeneration, risk factors from epidemiologic studies and causative factors from clinical and laboratory studies were reviewed. From the epidemiologic studies, the risk factors of senile macular degeneration included: personal characteristics such as age, sex, race, height, family history, and strength of hand grip; ocular characteristics such as hyperopia, color of iris and senile cataract; and systemic diseases and environmental exposure such as cardiovascular diseases, smoking, lung infections, and chemical exposures. The causative factors suggested from clinical and laboratory studies include: drusen, choroidal vascular diseases, photic injury, and vitamin C deficiency. It is postulated that aging macular degeneration is a multifactorial syndrome. Different etiologic factors may inflict damaging effect on the macula, resulting in a common set of clinical manifestations that are interpreted as aging macular degeneration.