Prevalence, characteristics, and outcomes of HIV-positive women diagnosed with invasive cancer of the cervix in Kenya

Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2013 Dec;123(3):231-5. doi: 10.1016/j.ijgo.2013.07.010. Epub 2013 Sep 10.


Objective: To determine the prevalence of invasive cervical cancer (ICC) and assess access to, and outcomes of, treatment for ICC among HIV-infected women in Kisumu, Kenya.

Methods: We performed a retrospective chart review to identify women diagnosed with ICC between October 2007 and June 2012, and to examine the impact of a change in the referral protocol. Prior to June 2009, all women with ICC were referred to a regional hospital. After this date, women with stage IA1 disease were offered treatment with loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) in-clinic.

Results: Of 4308 women screened, 58 (1.3%) were diagnosed with ICC. The mean age at diagnosis was 34years (range, 22-50years). Fifty-four (93.1%) women had stage IA1 disease, of whom 36 (66.7%) underwent LEEP, 7 (12.9%) had a total abdominal hysterectomy, and 11 (20.4%) had unknown or no treatment. At 6, 12, and 24months after LEEP, 8.0% (2/25), 25.0% (6/24), and 41.2% (7/17) of women had a recurrence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 or worse, respectively.

Conclusion: Most HIV-positive women diagnosed with ICC through screening had early-stage disease. The introduction of LEEP in-clinic increased access to treatment; however, recurrence was high, indicating the need for continued surveillance.

Keywords: Cervical cancer screening; HIV; Kenya; Loop Electrosurgical Excision Procedure; Resource-limited settings.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / epidemiology*
  • Electrosurgery / methods
  • Female
  • HIV Infections / epidemiology*
  • Health Services Accessibility
  • Humans
  • Hysterectomy / methods
  • Kenya / epidemiology
  • Mass Screening / methods*
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
  • Neoplasm Staging
  • Prevalence
  • Referral and Consultation
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Time Factors
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / surgery*