Background and methods: There are considerable uncertainty and debate regarding all aspects of newborn screen-positive cases of 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency (3-MCCD), including diagnostic criteria, clinical spectrum, morbidity, prognosis, and appropriate management. To address some of these questions, we queried data from the California Newborn Screening Program's Screening Information System (SIS) and available scanned laboratory reports on cases of 3-MCCD reported by 15 state contracted metabolic specialty care centers born between July 2005 and December 2010. We evaluated the completeness and utility of the database as a tool for clinical disease characterization.
Results: During the study period, 2,959,108 infants were screened and 71 infants were diagnosed with 3-MCCD for an overall incidence of 1:41,676. The availability of diagnostic biochemical laboratory data varied significantly from subject to subject. Using a new case classification based on biochemical severity, we found that 8 of the cases met our criteria for biochemically severe (category 1), 19 cases met our criteria for biochemically mild (category 2) that we suspect to possibly be hypomorphic variants or heterozygote carriers, and 44 cases could not be classified (category 3) as mild or severe based on the data available in SIS. Documentation of the treatment regimens also varied significantly with 49% receiving dietary modification and 44% receiving carnitine. 15% of cases were documented to have experienced at least one of the following symptoms: lethargy, vomiting, irritability, ketosis, poor feeding, or poor tone. The majority of the subjects were completely developmentally age appropriate at their last assessment.
Conclusions: The results suggest that a significant portion of the 3-MCCD "confirmed" cases have a mild biochemical phenotype. Moreover the majority of cases had insufficient data entered to allow for adequate clinical characterization of the cases. These findings raise the concern that a significant number of individuals receiving treatment for 3-MCCD may not have a clinically significant condition. Additionally, the utility of this data system could be improved if centers provided complete confirmatory test results and more specific documentation of clinical outcomes and health/developmental status. Further studies, including a clinical chart review, are necessary to validate the data and further characterize this cohort.
Keywords: 3-MCCD; 3-Methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency; Clinical; Database; Newborn screening; Outcome.
Published by Elsevier Inc.