Purpose: To assess the effect of a lifestyle therapy program using cardiac rehabilitation (CR) resources for patients at risk for metabolic syndrome (MetS).
Methods: We designed a cardiometabolic program (CMP) using CR facilities and resources. We compared MetS components of 240 patients classified as either obese (body mass index, ≥30 kg/m) or hyperglycemic (fasting glucose, >100 mg/dL): 58 enrolled and completed the CMP, 59 signed up for the CMP but never attended or dropped out early (control 1) but had followup data, and 123 did not sign up for the CMP (control 2).
Results: The CMP group showed a significant improvement at 6 weeks in waist circumference, body weight, diastolic blood pressure, and total cholesterol. At 6 months, fasting glucose also improved. In contrast, improvements in control 1 and control 2 were modest at best. Comparing the 6-month changes in the CMP group versus control 1 group, those in the CMP had pronounced weight loss (-4.5 ± 5 kg vs. -0.14 ± 6 kg; P < .001), decreased systolic blood pressure (-1.1 ± 17 mm Hg vs. +9.6 ± 20 mm Hg; P = .004), and decreased diastolic blood pressure (-4.6 ± 11 mm Hg vs. +3.4 ± 15 mm Hg; P = .002). Similarly, comparing CMP group versus control 2 group, body weight (-4.5 ± 5 kg vs. -0.9 ± 3 kg; P < .001) and diastolic blood pressure (-4.6 ± 11 mm Hg vs. -0.7 ± 9 mm Hg; P = .02) declined in the CMP group.
Conclusion: A lifestyle therapy program using resources of a CR program is effective for individuals who have or are at risk for MetS, although enrollment and completion rates are low.