Aims: The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on cardiac remodeling and major adverse events following acute myocardial infarction (AMI).
Methods: In a prospective, double-blind, randomized clinical trial, the effect of NAC on the serum levels of cardiac biomarkers was compared with that of placebo in 98 patients with AMI. Also, the patients were followed up for a 1-year period for major adverse cardiac events (MACE), including the occurrence of recurrent myocardial infarction, death, and need for target vessel revascularization.
Results: In patients who received NAC, the serum levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and MMP-2 after 72 h were significantly lower than those in the placebo group (p = 0.014 and p = 0.045, respectively). The length of hospitalization in patients who received NAC was significantly shorter than that in the placebo group (p = 0.024). With respect to MACE, there was a significant difference between those who received NAC (14 %) and those patients on placebo (25 %) (p = 0.024). Re-infarction took place in 4 % of patients in the NAC group as compared with 16.7 % in patients who received placebo (p = 0.007).
Conclusion: NAC can be beneficial in preventing early remodeling by reducing the level of MMP-2 and MMP-9. Moreover, NAC decreased the length of hospital stays in patients after AMI. By decreasing MACE, NAC could possibly be introduced as a 'magic bullet' in the pharmacotherapy of patients with AMI. Further studies are needed to elucidate NAC's role in this population.