Mechanisms of age-related macular degeneration and therapeutic opportunities

J Pathol. 2014 Jan;232(2):151-64. doi: 10.1002/path.4266.


As the age of the population increases in many nations, age-related degenerative diseases pose significant socioeconomic challenges. One of the key degenerative diseases that compromise quality of life is age-related macular degeneration (AMD). AMD is a multi-faceted condition that affects the central retina, which ultimately leads to blindness in millions of people worldwide. The pathophysiology and risk factors for AMD are complex, and the symptoms manifest in multiple related but distinct forms. The ability to develop effective treatments for AMD will depend on a thorough understanding of the underlying pathophysiology, risk factors, and driver molecular pathways, as well as the ability to develop useful animal models. This review provides an overview of the aforementioned aspects in AMD.

Keywords: age-related macular degeneration (AMD); best corrected visual acuity (BCVA); choroidal neovascularization (CNV); dry AMD; geographic atrophy (GA); neovascular AMD (NVAMD); retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells; wet AMD.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Drug Discovery*
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease
  • Humans
  • Macular Degeneration / drug therapy*
  • Macular Degeneration / metabolism
  • Macular Degeneration / pathology
  • Macular Degeneration / physiopathology
  • Molecular Targeted Therapy
  • Phenotype
  • Retina / drug effects*
  • Retina / metabolism
  • Retina / pathology
  • Retina / physiopathology