Sex determination from scapular length measurements by CT scans images in a Caucasian population

Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2013;2013:1632-5. doi: 10.1109/EMBC.2013.6609829.


Together with race, stature and age, sex is a main component of the biological identity. Thanks to its proportional correlation with parts of the human body, sex can be evaluated form the skeleton. The most accurate approach to determine sex by bone size is based on os coxae or skull. After natural disaster their presence can never be guaranteed, therefore the development of methods of sex determination using other skeletal elements can result crucial. Herein, sexual dimorphism in the human scapula is used to develop a two-variable discriminant function for sex estimation. We have enrolled 100 males and 100 females who underwent thoracic CT scan evaluation and we have estimated two scapular diameters. The estimation has been carried out by analyzing images of the scapulae of each patient after three dimensional post-processing reconstructions. The two-variable function allows to obtain an overall accuracy of 88% on the calibration sample. Furthermore, we have employed the mentioned function on a collection of 10 individual test sample from the collection of the "Museo di Anatomia Umana di Firenze" of the Università degli Studi di Firenze; sex has been correctly predicted on 9 skeletons.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Calibration
  • Discriminant Analysis
  • Female
  • Forensic Anthropology
  • Humans
  • Imaging, Three-Dimensional
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Organ Size
  • Scapula / anatomy & histology*
  • Sex Determination by Skeleton / methods*
  • Sex Determination by Skeleton / standards
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed*
  • White People