Occurrence and distribution of endosulfan in water, sediment, and fish tissue: an ecological assessment of protected lands in south Florida

J Agric Food Chem. 2013 Dec 11;61(49):11881-92. doi: 10.1021/jf403140z. Epub 2013 Nov 25.


Over the past 30 years, endosulfan, one of the last polychlorinated pesticides still in use, has received considerable attention and has been the subject of a number of international regulations and restriction action plans worldwide. This study aimed to monitor the presence and to assess the potential transport of endosulfan within the protected areas of Everglades National Park, Biscayne National Park, and Big Cypress National Preserve, South Florida, USA. Endosulfan sulfate was the major metabolite detected in all matrices in areas along the C-111 and C-111E canals, which drain the Homestead agricultural area and discharge to either Florida or Biscayne Bays, both of which are critical wildlife habitats. Endosulfan concentrations of up to 158 ng L(-1) and 57 ng g(-1) were observed in surface water and sediments, respectively, which exceeded the U.S. EPA's chronic water quality criteria (56 ng L(-1)). Elevated levels of up to 371 ng g(-1) of endosulfan sulfate were detected in whole fish tissue.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Conservation of Natural Resources*
  • Endosulfan / analogs & derivatives*
  • Endosulfan / analysis
  • Endosulfan / metabolism
  • Environmental Monitoring
  • Fishes / metabolism
  • Florida
  • Geologic Sediments / analysis*
  • Muscles / chemistry*
  • Muscles / metabolism
  • Pesticides / analysis*
  • Pesticides / metabolism
  • Water Pollutants, Chemical / analysis*
  • Water Pollutants, Chemical / metabolism


  • Pesticides
  • Water Pollutants, Chemical
  • endosulfan sulfate
  • Endosulfan