Novel multisensor probe for monitoring bladder temperature during locoregional chemohyperthermia for nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer: technical feasibility study

J Endourol. 2013 Dec;27(12):1504-9. doi: 10.1089/end.2013.0179. Epub 2013 Oct 10.


Background and purpose: The effectiveness of locoregional hyperthermia combined with intravesical instillation of mitomycin C to reduce the risk of recurrence and progression of intermediate- and high-risk nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer is currently investigated in clinical trials. Clinically effective locoregional hyperthermia delivery necessitates adequate thermal dosimetry; thus, optimal thermometry methods are needed to monitor accurately the temperature distribution throughout the bladder wall. The aim of the study was to evaluate the technical feasibility of a novel intravesical device (multi-sensor probe) developed to monitor the local bladder wall temperatures during loco-regional C-HT.

Materials and methods: A multisensor thermocouple probe was designed for deployment in the human bladder, using special sensors to cover the bladder wall in different directions. The deployment of the thermocouples against the bladder wall was evaluated with visual, endoscopic, and CT imaging in bladder phantoms, porcine models, and human bladders obtained from obduction for bladder volumes and different deployment sizes of the probe. Finally, porcine bladders were embedded in a phantom and subjected to locoregional heating to compare probe temperatures with additional thermometry inside and outside the bladder wall.

Results: The 7.5 cm thermocouple probe yielded optimal bladder wall contact, adapting to different bladder volumes. Temperature monitoring was shown to be accurate and representative for the actual bladder wall temperature.

Conclusions: Use of this novel multisensor probe could yield a more accurate monitoring of the bladder wall temperature during locoregional chemohyperthermia.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Intravesical
  • Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage
  • Body Temperature*
  • Equipment Design
  • Feasibility Studies
  • Humans
  • Hyperthermia, Induced / methods*
  • Mitomycin / administration & dosage*
  • Monitoring, Physiologic / instrumentation*
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Urinary Bladder / physiopathology*
  • Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / physiopathology
  • Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / therapy*


  • Antibiotics, Antineoplastic
  • Mitomycin