Emerald ash borer invasion of North America: history, biology, ecology, impacts, and management

Annu Rev Entomol. 2014:59:13-30. doi: 10.1146/annurev-ento-011613-162051. Epub 2013 Oct 9.


Since its accidental introduction from Asia, emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), has killed millions of ash trees in North America. As it continues to spread, it could functionally extirpate ash with devastating economic and ecological impacts. Little was known about EAB when it was first discovered in North America in 2002, but substantial advances in understanding of EAB biology, ecology, and management have occurred since. Ash species indigenous to China are generally resistant to EAB and may eventually provide resistance genes for introgression into North American species. EAB is characterized by stratified dispersal resulting from natural and human-assisted spread, and substantial effort has been devoted to the development of survey methods. Early eradication efforts were abandoned largely because of the difficulty of detecting and delineating infestations. Current management is focused on biological control, insecticide protection of high-value trees, and integrated efforts to slow ash mortality.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animal Distribution
  • Animals
  • Canada
  • Coleoptera / growth & development
  • Coleoptera / physiology*
  • Food Chain*
  • Fraxinus / genetics
  • Fraxinus / growth & development*
  • Insect Control / methods*
  • Introduced Species
  • Larva / growth & development
  • Larva / physiology
  • Pupa / growth & development
  • Pupa / physiology
  • United States