A multicentre year-long randomised controlled trial of exercise training targeting physical functioning in men with prostate cancer previously treated with androgen suppression and radiation from TROG 03.04 RADAR

Eur Urol. 2014 May;65(5):856-64. doi: 10.1016/j.eururo.2013.09.041. Epub 2013 Oct 3.


Background: Long-term prostate cancer (PCa) survivors are at increased risk for comorbidities and physical deconditioning.

Objective: To determine the effectiveness of a year-long randomised controlled trial of exercise training in PCa survivors >5 yr postdiagnosis on physical functioning.

Design, setting, and participants: Between 2010 and 2011, 100 long-term PCa survivors from Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group 03.04 Randomised Androgen Deprivation and Radiotherapy previously treated with androgen-deprivation therapy and radiation therapy were randomly assigned to 6 mo of supervised exercise followed by 6 mo of a home-based maintenance programme (n=50) or printed educational material about physical activity (n=50) for 12 mo across 13 university-affiliated exercise clinics in Australia and New Zealand.

Intervention: Supervised resistance and aerobic exercise or printed educational material about physical activity.

Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: The primary end point was a 400-m walk as a measure of cardiovascular fitness. Secondary end points were physical function, patient-reported outcomes, muscle strength, body composition, and biomarkers. Analysis of covariance was used to compare outcomes for groups at 6 and 12 mo adjusted for baseline values.

Results and limitations: Participants undergoing supervised exercise showed improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness performance at 6 mo (-19 s [p=0.029]) and 12 mo (-13 s [p=0.028]) and better lower-body physical function across the 12-mo period (p<0.01). Supervised exercise also improved self-reported physical functioning at 6 (p=.006) and 12 mo (p=0.002), appendicular skeletal muscle at 6 mo (p=0.019), and objective measures of muscle strength at 6 and 12 mo (p<0.050). Limitations included the restricted number of participants undertaking body composition assessment, no blinding to group assignment for physical functioning measures, and inclusion of well-functioning individuals.

Conclusions: Supervised exercise training in long-term PCa survivors is more effective than physical activity educational material for increasing cardiorespiratory fitness, physical function, muscle strength, and self-reported physical functioning at 6 mo. Importantly, these benefits were maintained in the long term with a home-based programme with follow-up at 12 mo.

Clinical trial registry: The effect of an exercise intervention on cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors in prostate cancer patients from the RADAR study, ACTRN: ACTRN12609000729224.

Keywords: Androgen deprivation; Musculoskeletal system; Physical exercise; Physical function; Quality of life; Resistance training.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use
  • Blood Pressure
  • Body Composition
  • Cholesterol, HDL / blood
  • Exercise Therapy / adverse effects
  • Exercise Therapy / methods*
  • Humans
  • Leg / physiology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Muscle Strength
  • Muscle, Skeletal / physiology
  • Patient Education as Topic
  • Physical Conditioning, Human / adverse effects
  • Physical Conditioning, Human / methods*
  • Physical Conditioning, Human / physiology*
  • Physical Fitness / physiology*
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / physiopathology*
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • Quality of Life
  • Self Report
  • Time Factors
  • Torso / physiology


  • Androgen Antagonists
  • Cholesterol, HDL