Previous studies indicate that the repeated administration of D-methylamphetamine (MA) produces a long-lasting depletion of dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) in various brain regions of a number of species. The objectives of the present study were: (1) to establish a short, subcutaneous injection regimen which would reliably produce the neuronal alterations; (2) to evaluate MA-induced NE depletions produced by this new regimen; and (3) to determine whether central MA-induced neuronal changes are reflected in changes in cerebrospinal fluid monoamine metabolite concentrations. It was observed that high doses of MA administered (s.c.) over a 2-week period to rhesus monkeys produced decreases in DA and 5-HT, but not NE levels, in various brain regions. The decrease in caudate DA levels was accompanied by a decrease in the number of DA uptake sites, a decrease in the level of homovanillic acid (HVA) and an increase in DA turnover. This decrease in brain DA was also accompanied by a decrease in the cerebrospinal fluid concentration of HVA.