The occurrence and distribution of substance P (SP)-like, methionine-(Met)- and leucine-(Leu)-enkephalin-like, and FMRFamide-like immunoreactivities were determined in the neuroendocrine complex of the eyestalk of the fiddler crab, Uca pugilator, by immunocytochemistry. SP-like immunoreactivity was found in the optic peduncle, sinus gland, medulla externa, medulla interna, lamina ganglionaris, and retinular cells. Met-enkephalin-like and Leu-enkephalin-like immunoreactivity was observed in most of the retinular cells, optic peduncle, sinus gland, medulla terminalis, and lamina ganglionaris. However, Met-enkephalin-like, but no Leu-enkephalin-like, immunoreactivity was seen in the medulla terminalis X-organ. FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity could be seen in all parts of the eyestalk except in the sinus gland, lamina ganglionaris, and retinular cells. FMRF-amide-like activity was especially strong in the three chiasmatic regions connecting the optic ganglia. The possibility that these four peptides may function as neuroregulators in the fiddler crab is discussed.