Bacterial community compositions of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.) seeds and plant growth promoting activity of ACC deaminase producing Bacillus subtilis (HYT-12-1) on tomato seedlings

World J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2014 Mar;30(3):835-45. doi: 10.1007/s11274-013-1486-y. Epub 2013 Oct 11.


Study of endophytic bacteria within plant seeds is very essential and meaningful on account of their heritability and versatility. This study investigated Bacillus bacterial communities within the seeds of four commercial tomato varieties, by 16S rRNA gene PCR-RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism). Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the 22 representative isolates belonged to five species of genus Bacillus and the bacterial compositions showed remarkable differences among tomato varieties. Isolates exhibited multiple plant growth promoting (PGP) traits: 37 % of indole-3-acetic acid production; 37 % of phosphate solubilization; 24 % of siderophores production; 85 % of potential nitrogen fixation and 6 % of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase activity. Isolate HYT-12-1 was shown to have highest ACC deaminase activity (112.02 nmol α-ketobutyrate mg⁻¹ protein h⁻¹) among the five ACC deamiase producing strains. 16S rRNA gene sequencing indicated that the isolate HYT-12-1 shared the highest sequence similarity (100 %) with B. subtilis. PGP experiments under gnotobiotic and greenhouse conditions revealed the ability of strain HYT-12-1 to enhance the growth of tomato seedlings. This is the first study to describe endophytic Bacillus communities within tomato seeds, and the results suggest that B. subtilis strain HYT-12-1 would have a great potential for industrial application as biofertilizer in the future.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Bacillus subtilis / classification
  • Bacillus subtilis / enzymology*
  • Bacillus subtilis / isolation & purification
  • Bacillus subtilis / metabolism
  • Biota*
  • Carbon-Carbon Lyases / metabolism*
  • DNA, Bacterial / chemistry
  • DNA, Bacterial / genetics
  • DNA, Ribosomal / chemistry
  • DNA, Ribosomal / genetics
  • Lycopersicon esculentum / microbiology*
  • Lycopersicon esculentum / physiology*
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Nerve Growth Factors
  • Plant Development*
  • Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length
  • RNA, Ribosomal, 16S / genetics
  • Seedlings / microbiology
  • Seedlings / physiology
  • Seeds / microbiology*
  • Sequence Analysis, DNA


  • DNA, Bacterial
  • DNA, Ribosomal
  • Nerve Growth Factors
  • RNA, Ribosomal, 16S
  • 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase
  • Carbon-Carbon Lyases

Associated data

  • GENBANK/KC663647
  • GENBANK/KC663648
  • GENBANK/KC663649
  • GENBANK/KC663650
  • GENBANK/KC663651
  • GENBANK/KC663652
  • GENBANK/KC663653
  • GENBANK/KC663654
  • GENBANK/KC663655
  • GENBANK/KC663656
  • GENBANK/KC663657
  • GENBANK/KC663658
  • GENBANK/KC663659
  • GENBANK/KC663660
  • GENBANK/KC663661
  • GENBANK/KC663662
  • GENBANK/KC663663
  • GENBANK/KC663664
  • GENBANK/KC663665
  • GENBANK/KC663666
  • GENBANK/KC663667
  • GENBANK/KC663668