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Review
, 34 (4), 703-43

Therapeutic Potentials of Ecto-Nucleoside Triphosphate Diphosphohydrolase, Ecto-Nucleotide Pyrophosphatase/Phosphodiesterase, ecto-5'-nucleotidase, and Alkaline Phosphatase Inhibitors

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Review

Therapeutic Potentials of Ecto-Nucleoside Triphosphate Diphosphohydrolase, Ecto-Nucleotide Pyrophosphatase/Phosphodiesterase, ecto-5'-nucleotidase, and Alkaline Phosphatase Inhibitors

Mariya al-Rashida et al. Med Res Rev.

Abstract

The modulatory role of extracellular nucleotides and adenosine in relevance to purinergic cell signaling mechanisms has long been known and is an object of much research worldwide. These extracellular nucleotides are released by a variety of cell types either innately or as a response to patho-physiological stress or injury. A variety of surface-located ecto-nucleotidases (of four major types; nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases or NTPDases, nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterases or NPPs, alkaline phosphatases APs or ALPs, and ecto-5'-nucleotidase or e5NT) are responsible for meticulously controlling the availability of these important signaling molecules (at their respective receptors) in extracellular environment and are therefore crucial for maintaining the integrity of normal cell functioning. Overexpression of many of these ubiquitous ecto-enzymes has been implicated in a variety of disorders including cell adhesion, activation, proliferation, apoptosis, and degenerative neurological and immunological responses. Selective inhibition of these ecto-enzymes is an area that is currently being explored with great interest and hopes remain high that development of selective ecto-nucleotidase inhibitors will prove to have many beneficial therapeutic implications. The aim of this review is to emphasize and focus on recent developments made in the field of inhibitors of ecto-nucleotidases and to highlight their structure activity relationships wherever possible. Most recent and significant advances in field of NTPDase, NPP, AP, and e5NT inhibitors is being discussed in detail in anticipation of providing prolific leads and relevant background for research groups interested in synthesis of selective ecto-nucleotidase inhibitors.

Keywords: ecto-5′-nucleotidase; ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase, ecto-nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase, alkaline phosphatase; ecto-nucleotidase; enzyme inhibitors.

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