Lifestyle changes for improving disease-specific quality of life in sedentary men on long-term androgen-deprivation therapy for advanced prostate cancer: a randomised controlled trial

Eur Urol. 2014 May;65(5):865-72. doi: 10.1016/j.eururo.2013.09.040. Epub 2013 Oct 4.


Background: Prostate cancer is a key driver of cancer-related global disability-adjusted life-years. Androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) for advanced disease is linked to fatigue, reduced physical function, and quality of life (QoL).

Objective: To evaluate the effect of a lifestyle intervention on disease-specific QoL, diastolic blood pressure, and cancer-related fatigue in sedentary men receiving long-term ADT for advanced prostate cancer.

Design, setting, and participants: A total of 100 hundred sedentary men with locally advanced or metastatic prostate cancer on long-term ADT were randomised to an intervention or usual care group.

Intervention: A 12-wk lifestyle intervention consisting of aerobic and resistance exercise with parallel dietary advice.

Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: Disease-specific QoL was measured using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Prostate (FACT-P) and Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Fatigue (FACT-F) questionnaires at 12 wk postintervention and at 6 mo following withdrawal of support. Analysis of covariance and mixed regression were conducted.

Results and limitations: Clinically relevant improvements in FACT-P were seen at 12 wk in the intervention group compared with controls (mean difference: 8.9 points; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.7-14.2; adjusted p=0.001). No difference was apparent at 6 mo (mean difference: 3.3 points; 95% CI, -2.6 to 9.3; adjusted p=0.27). No difference in diastolic blood pressure was seen at either follow-up (all p > 0.05). Clinically relevant improvements in FACT-F were seen at 12 wk (mean difference: 5.3 points; 95% CI, 2.7-7.9; adjusted p<0.001) and maintained following withdrawal of supervision (mean difference: 3.9 points; 95% CI, 1.1-6.8; adjusted p=0.007). Improvements in exercise tolerance and behaviour were maintained at 6 mo (adjusted p<0.001 and 0.038).

Conclusions: A lifestyle intervention resulted in a clinically meaningful improvement in disease-specific QoL that was not maintained postintervention. No effect on blood pressure occurred. Durability of response was seen in fatigue and exercise behaviour. Further evaluation of support structures is essential.

Trial registration: ISRCTN88605738.

Keywords: Androgen deprivation therapy; Diastolic blood pressure; Diet; Exercise; Fatigue; Prostate cancer; Quality of life.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Androgen Antagonists / adverse effects*
  • Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use
  • Blood Pressure
  • Diet
  • Dietary Fats
  • Exercise Therapy*
  • Exercise Tolerance / physiology
  • Fatigue / chemically induced
  • Fatigue / therapy*
  • Health Behavior
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy*
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / physiopathology
  • Quality of Life*
  • Resistance Training
  • Sedentary Behavior*
  • Single-Blind Method
  • Surveys and Questionnaires


  • Androgen Antagonists
  • Dietary Fats

Associated data

  • ISRCTN/ISRCTN88605738