Family history of immigration from a tuberculosis endemic country and low family income are associated with a higher BCG vaccination coverage in Ile-de-France region, France

Vaccine. 2013 Nov 19;31(48):5666-71. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2013.09.059. Epub 2013 Oct 10.


After withdrawal of multipuncture BCG device from the French market in January 2006, vaccination coverage (VC) with the intradermal device has dropped and since remained sub-optimal in Ile-de-France, the only region of mainland France where BCG is recommended to all children. We conducted a cross-sectional study to identify socio-economic factors associated with BCG VC in children of Paris metropolitan area born after January 2006. Two-stage random sampling was used to include 425 children up to 5 years old from Paris and its suburbs. Information was collected through face-to-face interviews and vaccination status confirmed by a vaccination document. Poisson regression analyzed the association between VC and potential determinants. VC of children from families with the lowest incomes (first quartile of family income/consumption unit (CU) (<883 €) was close to 100% regardless of family origin. In families with higher incomes (≥ 883 €/CU), VC was significantly higher among children born to families from a tuberculosis highly endemic country (98.2%) compared with other children (76.2%) (p=0.004). Children of low socio-economic background as well as those with a family history of immigration, regardless of family income, are correctly identified as being at high risk of tuberculosis and properly vaccinated with BCG in this area.

Keywords: BCG; France; Immunization coverage; Socioeconomic determinants.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • BCG Vaccine / administration & dosage*
  • BCG Vaccine / immunology*
  • Child, Preschool
  • Cohort Studies
  • Emigrants and Immigrants*
  • Emigration and Immigration
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Income
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Male
  • Paris
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • Tuberculosis / prevention & control*
  • Vaccination / statistics & numerical data*


  • BCG Vaccine