Toxicological and pharmacological concerns on oxidative stress and related diseases

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2013 Dec 15;273(3):442-55. doi: 10.1016/j.taap.2013.09.031. Epub 2013 Oct 11.


Although reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radical are generated as the natural byproduct of normal oxygen metabolism, they can create oxidative damage via interaction with bio-molecules. The role of oxidative stress as a remarkable upstream part is frequently reported in the signaling cascade of inflammation as well as chemo attractant production. Even though hydrogen peroxide can control cell signaling and stimulate cell proliferation at low levels, in higher concentrations it can initiate apoptosis and in very high levels may create necrosis. So far, the role of ROS in cellular damage and death is well documented with implicating in a broad range of degenerative alterations e.g. carcinogenesis, aging and other oxidative stress related diseases (OSRDs). Reversely, it is cleared that antioxidants are potentially able to suppress (at least in part) the immune system and to enhance the normal cellular protective responses to tissue damage. In this review, we aimed to provide insights on diverse OSRDs, which are correlated with the concept of oxidative stress as well as its cellular effects that can be inhibited by antioxidants. Resveratrol, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, statins, nebivolol and carvedilol, pentaerythritol tetranitrate, mitochondria-targeted antioxidants, and plant-derived drugs (alone or combined) are the potential medicines that can be used to control OSRD.

Keywords: Disease; Oxidative stress; Pharmacology; Toxicology.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists / therapeutic use
  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors / therapeutic use
  • Animals
  • Antioxidants / therapeutic use
  • Benzopyrans / therapeutic use
  • Carbazoles / therapeutic use
  • Carvedilol
  • Diabetes Mellitus / pathology
  • Diabetes Mellitus / prevention & control
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Ethanolamines / therapeutic use
  • Humans
  • Hydrogen Peroxide / metabolism
  • Inflammatory Bowel Diseases / pathology
  • Inflammatory Bowel Diseases / prevention & control
  • Nebivolol
  • Neoplasms / pathology
  • Neoplasms / prevention & control
  • Neurodegenerative Diseases / pathology
  • Neurodegenerative Diseases / prevention & control
  • Osteoporosis / pathology
  • Osteoporosis / prevention & control
  • Oxidative Stress / drug effects*
  • Oxidative Stress / physiology
  • Propanolamines / therapeutic use
  • Reactive Oxygen Species / metabolism
  • Resveratrol
  • Stilbenes / therapeutic use
  • Vascular Diseases / pathology
  • Vascular Diseases / prevention & control


  • Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists
  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Antioxidants
  • Benzopyrans
  • Carbazoles
  • Ethanolamines
  • Propanolamines
  • Reactive Oxygen Species
  • Stilbenes
  • Nebivolol
  • Carvedilol
  • Hydrogen Peroxide
  • Resveratrol