Chemical reduction of graphene oxide: a synthetic chemistry viewpoint

Chem Soc Rev. 2014 Jan 7;43(1):291-312. doi: 10.1039/c3cs60303b. Epub 2013 Oct 11.


The chemical reduction of graphene oxide is a promising route towards the large scale production of graphene for commercial applications. The current state-of-the-art in graphene oxide reduction, consisting of more than 50 types of reducing agent, will be reviewed from a synthetic chemistry point of view. Emphasis is placed on the techniques, reaction mechanisms and the quality of the produced graphene. The reducing agents are reviewed under two major categories: (i) those which function according to well-supported mechanisms and (ii) those which function according to proposed mechanisms based on knowledge of organic chemistry. This review will serve as a valuable platform to understand the efficiency of these reducing agents for the reduction of graphene oxide.