[Multidisciplinary position paper on the management of patent foramen ovale in the presence of cryptogenic cerebral ischemia - Italian version 2013]

G Ital Cardiol (Rome). 2013 Oct;14(10):699-712. doi: 10.1714/1335.14838.
[Article in Italian]


There is no generally accepted consensus on the management of patent foramen ovale (PFO) in the presence of cryptogenic cerebral ischemia, because of the lack of conclusive evidence. The aim of this position paper was to develop and promote a joint approach based on available data that may be shared by different specialists, while waiting for definite results from randomized controlled trials. A position statement was produced involving the major national scientific societies. The task force members were nominated by the presidents and/or executive boards of each society or working group, as appropriate, based on their previous work in relevant topic areas. Specific task force working groups prepared the drafts. In order to achieve maximum agreement, these drafts were merged and distributed to the scientific societies for local evaluation. The ensuing final draft, merging all the revisions, was reviewed by the task force and finally approved by all scientific societies. The following issues were addressed: definitions of transient ischemic attack (TIA) and both symptomatic and asymptomatic cryptogenic stroke; formulation of a diagnostic workup for patients with clinical event(s) and PFO; recommendations regarding medical and interventional treatment options considering individual risk factors based on the three available randomized trials and other observational studies; recommendations regarding requirements for operators and centers in Italy; definition of a follow-up evaluation protocol. In conclusion, available data provided the basis for the first multi-society position paper on the management of cryptogenic stroke/TIA and PFO.

Publication types

  • English Abstract
  • Practice Guideline

MeSH terms

  • Cardiology / standards*
  • Consensus
  • Diagnostic Imaging / standards
  • Foramen Ovale, Patent / complications
  • Foramen Ovale, Patent / diagnosis
  • Foramen Ovale, Patent / therapy*
  • Humans
  • Interdisciplinary Communication
  • Ischemic Attack, Transient / diagnosis
  • Ischemic Attack, Transient / etiology
  • Ischemic Attack, Transient / therapy*
  • Neurology / standards*
  • Patient Care Team / standards
  • Stroke / diagnosis
  • Stroke / etiology
  • Stroke / therapy*
  • Treatment Outcome