Periodate-lysine-paraformaldehyde as fixative for the study of duodenal mucosa. Morphologic and immunohistochemical results at light and electron microscopic levels

Acta Pathol Microbiol Immunol Scand A. 1985 Jul;93(4):165-73. doi: 10.1111/j.1699-0463.1985.tb03936.x.


Methods are described which utilize periodate-lysine-paraformaldehyde (PLP) as the only fixative for the investigation of nonfrozen small-bowel biopsy specimens by morphologic and immunohistochemical studies at both light and electron microscopic levels. Small-bowel biopsy specimens were obtained from children suspected of coeliac disease. In light microscopy, there was good morphology and haematoxylineosin staining of the mucosa. Immunofluorescence and immunoperoxidase staining of paraffin-embedded specimens enabled an accurate demonstration of immunoglobulins (IgA, IgM, IgG) in the duodenal mucosa. In conventional electron microscopy, PLP gave a reasonable preservation of ultrastructure. In immunoelectron microscopy, a pre-embedding immunoperoxidase technique provided exact ultrastructural localization of immunoglobulins. The methods are easy to adapt and they give reliable light and electron microscopic results.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Celiac Disease / pathology*
  • Child
  • Complement C3
  • Duodenum / pathology*
  • Duodenum / ultrastructure
  • Fixatives*
  • Formaldehyde*
  • Humans
  • Immunoglobulin A
  • Immunoglobulin G
  • Immunoglobulin M
  • Immunologic Techniques
  • Intestinal Mucosa / pathology*
  • Intestinal Mucosa / ultrastructure
  • Lysine*
  • Periodic Acid*
  • Staining and Labeling / methods


  • Complement C3
  • Fixatives
  • Immunoglobulin A
  • Immunoglobulin G
  • Immunoglobulin M
  • periodate-lysine-paraformaldehyde
  • Periodic Acid
  • Formaldehyde
  • Lysine