The effectiveness of cigarette price and smoke-free homes on low-income smokers in the United States

Am J Public Health. 2013 Dec;103(12):2276-83. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2013.301300. Epub 2013 Oct 17.


Objectives: We examined the effectiveness of state cigarette price and smoke-free homes on smoking behaviors of low-income and high-income populations in the United States.

Methods: We used the 2006-2007 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey. The primary outcomes were average daily cigarette consumption and successful quitting. We used multivariable regression to examine the association of cigarette price and smoke-free home policies on these outcomes.

Results: High state cigarette price (pack price ≥ $4.50) was associated with lower consumption across all income levels. Although low-income individuals were least likely to adopt smoke-free homes, those who adopted them had consumption levels and successful quit rates that were similar to those among higher-income individuals. In multivariable analysis, both policies were independently associated with lower consumption, but only smoke-free homes were associated with sustained cessation at 90 days.

Conclusions: High cigarette prices and especially smoke-free homes have the potential to reduce smoking behaviors among low-income individuals. Interventions are needed to increase adoption of smoke-free homes among low-income populations to increase cessation rates and prevent relapse.

Publication types

  • Evaluation Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Female
  • Health Surveys
  • Housing*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Poverty Areas*
  • Smoking / epidemiology
  • Tobacco Products / economics*
  • Tobacco Smoke Pollution / prevention & control*
  • United States / epidemiology
  • Young Adult


  • Tobacco Smoke Pollution