Transformation-related protein 63-expressing (p63(+)) basal cells are confined to the trachea in the mouse lung. However, after influenza virus infection or bleomycin treatment, patches of p63(+) cells were observed in the damaged lung parenchyma. To address whether the newly induced p63(+) cells are derived from the p63(+) basal cells, we performed lineage tracing. In a keratin 5 promoter-driven CreER system, although preexisting p63(+) basal cells were labeled by enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) after tamoxifen treatment, none or only a small fraction (∼ 15%) of the p63(+) patches was labeled by EGFP after bleomycin treatment or influenza virus infection, respectively. In contrast, > 60% of p63(+) patches contained EGFP(+) cells in Scgb1a1-CreER transgenic system where club cells are labeled. Many p63(+) cells were found in bronchiole-like lumen structures with columnar cells at the lumen side. The columnar cells were positive for club cell marker Cyp2f2 and could be traced to the newly induced p63(+) cells. These results suggest that most of the newly induced p63(+) cells in the damaged parenchyma are likely derived from club cells rather than from p63(+) basal cells and that newly induced p63(+) cells may be involved in the regeneration of bronchioles.