Purpose: We aimed to elucidate trans-1-amino-3-[(18)F]fluorocyclobutanecarboxylic acid (anti-[(18)F]FACBC) uptake mechanisms in inflammatory and tumor cells, in comparison with those of L-[methyl-(11)C]methionine ([(11)C]Met) and 2-deoxy-2-[(18)F]fluoro-D-glucose ([(18)F]FDG).
Procedures: Using carbon-14-labeled tracers, in vitro time-course, pH dependence, and competitive inhibition uptake experiments were performed in rat inflammatory (T cells, B cells, granulocytes, macrophages), prostate cancer (MLLB2), and glioma (C6) cells.
Results: Anti-[(14)C]FACBC uptake ratios of T/B cells to tumor cells were comparable, while those of granulocytes/macrophages to tumor cells were lower than those for [(14)C]FDG. Over half of anti-[(14)C]FACBC uptake by T/B and tumor cells was mediated by Na(+)-dependent amino acid transporters (system ASC), whereas most [(14)C]Met transport in all cells was mediated by Na(+)-independent carriers (system L).
Conclusions: The low anti-[(18)F]FACBC accumulation in granulocytes/macrophages may be advantageous in discriminating inflamed regions from tumors. The significant anti-[(18)F]FACBC uptake in T/B cells may cause false-positives in some cancer patients who undergo FACBC-positron emission tomography (PET).