Prominent hypointense veins on susceptibility weighted image in the cat brain with acute infarction: DWI, SWI, and PWI

Acta Radiol. 2014 Oct;55(8):1008-14. doi: 10.1177/0284185113508181. Epub 2013 Oct 17.


Background: The multiple prominent hypointense veins on susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) have been found in the ischemic territory of patients with acute ischemic stroke. Venous side is the unknown area in the hemodynamics of brain infarction.

Purpose: To evaluate the venous aspect in acute brain infarction through an animal study.

Material and methods: The acute infarction in cat brains was induced with a bolus infusion of 0.25 mL of triolein through one side of the common carotid artery. The magnetic resonance (MR) images, including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) map, SW, and perfusion-weighted (PWI) images, were obtained serially at 2 h (n = 17), 1 day (n = 11), and 4 days (n = 4) after triolein infusion. The obtained MR images were evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively. For qualitative assessment, the signal intensity of the serial MR images was evaluated. The presence or absence and the location with serial changes of infarction were identified on DWI and ADC map images. The presence or absence of prominent hypointense veins and the serial changes of cortical veins were also evaluated on SWI. Quantitative assessment was performed by comparing the relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV), cerebral blood flow (rCBF), and mean transit times (MTT) of the lesions with those of the contralateral normal side calculated on PWI. The serial changes of rCBV, rCBF, and MTT ratio were also evaluated.

Results: Acute infarction in the first and second medial gyrus of lesion hemisphere was found by qualitative evaluation of DWI and ADC map images. On the serial evaluation of SWI, the cortical veins of cat brain with infarction were obscured at 2 h and then re-appeared at 1 day. The hemorrhage transformation and prominent hypointense veins were seen at 4 days on SWI. The quantitative evaluation revealed increased MTT ratios and decreased rCBV and rCBF ratios on PWIs in the acute infarction of cat brain.

Conclusion: The prominent hypointense veins on SWI were seen in the half of the acute infarction at 4 days. The prominent hypointense veins on SWI may have good agreement with the increased MTT ratio.

Keywords: Brain infarction; MR; PWI; SWI; hemodynamics.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acute Disease
  • Animals
  • Brain / blood supply*
  • Brain / pathology*
  • Brain Infarction / chemically induced
  • Brain Infarction / pathology*
  • Cats
  • Contrast Media
  • Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods*
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Echo-Planar Imaging / methods
  • Gadolinium DTPA
  • Image Enhancement / methods
  • Magnetic Resonance Angiography / methods*
  • Triolein


  • Contrast Media
  • Triolein
  • Gadolinium DTPA