Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
Review
. 2013 Oct 16;4:130.
doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2013.00130.

Does Cannabidiol Protect Against Adverse Psychological Effects of THC?

Affiliations
Free PMC article
Review

Does Cannabidiol Protect Against Adverse Psychological Effects of THC?

Raymond J M Niesink et al. Front Psychiatry. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

The recreational use of cannabis can have persistent adverse effects on mental health. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the main psychoactive constituent of cannabis, and most, if not all, of the effects associated with the use of cannabis are caused by THC. Recent studies have suggested a possible protective effect of another cannabinoid, cannabidiol (CBD). A literature search was performed in the bibliographic databases PubMed, PsycINFO, and Web of Science using the keyword "cannabidiol." After removing duplicate entries, 1295 unique titles remained. Based on the titles and abstracts, an initial selection was made. The reference lists of the publications identified in this manner were examined for additional references. Cannabis is not a safe drug. Depending on how often someone uses, the age of onset, the potency of the cannabis that is used and someone's individual sensitivity, the recreational use of cannabis may cause permanent psychological disorders. Most recreational users will never be faced with such persistent mental illness, but in some individuals cannabis use leads to undesirable effects: cognitive impairment, anxiety, paranoia, and increased risks of developing chronic psychosis or drug addiction. Studies examining the protective effects of CBD have shown that CBD can counteract the negative effects of THC. However, the question remains of how the laboratory results translate to the types of cannabis that are encountered by real-world recreational users.

Keywords: anxiety; cannabidiol; cannabis; cognition; drug dependence; psychosis; tetrahydrocannabinol.

Similar articles

See all similar articles

Cited by 39 articles

See all "Cited by" articles

References

    1. Howlett AC, Johnson MR, Melvin LS, Milne GM. Nonclassical cannabinoid analgetics inhibit adenylate cyclase: development of a cannabinoid receptor model. Mol Pharmacol (1988) 33(3):297–302 - PubMed
    1. Matsuda LA, Lolait SJ, Brownstein MJ, Young AC, Bonner TI. Structure of a cannabinoid receptor and functional expression of the cloned cDNA. Nature (1990) 346(6284):561–410.1038/346561a0 - DOI - PubMed
    1. Munro S, Thomas KL, Bu-Shaar M. Molecular characterization of a peripheral receptor for cannabinoids. Nature (1993) 365(6441):61–510.1038/365061a0 - DOI - PubMed
    1. Herkenham M, Lynn AB, Little MD, Johnson MR, Melvin LS, De Costa BR, et al. Cannabinoid receptor localization in brain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A (1990) 87(5):1932–610.1073/pnas.87.5.1932 - DOI - PMC - PubMed
    1. Glass M, Dragunow M, Faull RL. Cannabinoid receptors in the human brain: a detailed anatomical and quantitative autoradiographic study in the fetal, neonatal and adult human brain. Neuroscience (1997) 77(2):299–31810.1016/S0306-4522(96)00428-9 - DOI - PubMed

LinkOut - more resources

Feedback