Global trends in testosterone prescribing, 2000-2011: expanding the spectrum of prescription drug misuse

Med J Aust. 2013 Oct 21;199(8):548-51. doi: 10.5694/mja13.10111.


Objective: To provide the first multinational survey of temporal trends in testosterone prescribing, given that anecdotal evidence indicates that it is increasing in some countries, including Australia.

Design: Sales data for all testosterone products were obtained for 41 countries for each year from 2000 to 2011. For each testosterone product type (injectable, implantable, oral, transdermal), units sold were converted into defined monthly doses per year, reflecting total testosterone prescribing per product.

Main outcome measures: National testosterone prescribing rate overall and per product type on a per capita basis.

Results: For every region and 37 of 41 countries, there was a major and progressive increase in defined monthly doses per year per capita over the 11 years surveyed. In most countries, the increases were steeper for the last half of the survey period. The proportion of testosterone prescribing represented by transdermal testosterone products, a surrogate measure of prescribing for older men, increased even more than did the total usage of testosterone products.

Conclusions: In the absence of any new indications, off-label testosterone prescribing has increased in most countries in 2000-2011, especially over the last half of the period. The increased testosterone prescribing appears to be primarily for older men and driven by clinical guidelines that endorse testosterone prescribing for age-related functional androgen deficiency (andropause). By eliminating the fundamental distinction between pathological and functional androgen deficiency, these guidelines tacitly promote increased testosterone prescribing, bypassing the requirement for high-quality clinical evidence of safety and efficacy and creating dramatic increases in prescription of testosterone products.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Andropause / drug effects
  • Australia
  • Cross-Cultural Comparison
  • Evidence-Based Medicine / trends
  • Forecasting
  • Health Care Costs / trends
  • Health Surveys
  • Hormone Replacement Therapy / economics
  • Hormone Replacement Therapy / trends*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Off-Label Use / economics
  • Practice Patterns, Physicians' / economics
  • Practice Patterns, Physicians' / trends*
  • Prescription Drug Misuse / economics
  • Prescription Drug Misuse / trends*
  • Testosterone / economics
  • Testosterone / therapeutic use*


  • Testosterone